Browse Cases

Showing 76-100 of 118 results

Unions and students in Hong Kong and Canton strike-boycott against British imperial rule, 1925-1926

Country
China
Hong Kong
Time period
June, 1925 to October, 1926
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Economic Justice
Human Rights
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
4 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Anjali Cadambi, 26/09/2010

In a shooting incident on May 30, 1925, Sikh police under British command opened fire on Chinese protestors in the International Settlement of Shanghai, killing nine demonstrators and wounding many others. News of the incident spread across China, triggering an outburst of nationalism and prompting protests all over, but especially in Shanghai and Canton (Guangzhou) – two cities with concentrated British interests.

Ecuadorian indigenous peoples resist oil drilling in the Amazon, 1989-1994

Country
Ecuador
Time period
January, 1989 to September, 1994
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Economic Justice
Environment
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
6 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
William Lawrence, 01/10/2010

In June 1988, the Arlington Richmond Company (ARCO) acquired rights to explore and exploit petroleum resources in an area of Pastaza province, Ecuador, known as Block 10.  Located in the Amazon rainforest in eastern Ecuador (“El Oriente”), Pastaza was barely developed at the time.  No roads reached Block 10—the small villages in the area were only accessible via helicopter, small airplane, or a multi-day jungle trek.  To the Organization of Indigenous Peoples of Pastaza (OPIP), which represented 15,000 locals, mostly of the Quichua nation, ARCO’s acquisition seemed like a dan

Tibetan monks protest Chinese rule (Lhasa Protests), 2008

Country
Tibet
China
Time period
March 10, 2008 to March 15, 2008
Classification
Change
Cluster
Human Rights
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
3 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Adriana Popa, 16/10/2010

On March 10, 2008, the Tibetan Uprising Day, a protest against China's occupation of Tibet took place in Lhasa, Tibet’s administrative capital. Worried about the worsening human rights situation inside Tibet, participants intended to use the Olympics’ spotlight to attract international support for the Tibetan cause and to pressure the Chinese government to end its occupation of Tibet, to put a stop to its abuses against Tibetan citizens and supporters, and to ultimately respect Tibet’s sovereignty.

Tahitian labor unions general strike to protest economic hardship, 2010

Country
French Polynesia
Time period
June 4, 2010 to June 15, 2010
Classification
Change
Cluster
Economic Justice
Human Rights
Total points
2 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Julio Alicea, 14/11/2010

Tahiti was first made into a French colony in 1880 and then, along with the rest of the Polynesian islands, became a French territory in 1946. Since then, Tahiti has been the economic center of French Polynesia.

Golan Druze resistance to Israeli forced citizenship, 1981-1982

Country
Syria
Israel
Time period
October, 1981 to July, 1982
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Human Rights
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
5 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Markus Schlotterbeck, 17/06/2009

The Druze are a religious and ethnic sect on the Eastern edge of the Mediterranean. They live in mountainous regions in modern Lebanon, Israel and Syria (the Golan Heights). During the Arab-Israeli war in 1967 nearly all of the 110,000 Druze in the Golan Heights fled, though around 13,000 remained near the foot of Mount Harmon. They generally farmed olives and fruit. That same land was strategically important to both Israel and Syria, and Israel occupied it after the 1967 war.

Syrian citizens general strike against France, 1936

Country
Syria
Time period
January 20, 1936 to March 2, 1936
Classification
Change
Defense
Cluster
Democracy
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Markus Schlotterbeck, 20/08/2009

French-occupied Syria was facing darkening hopes for more independence from France at the end of 1935. The major Syrian nationalist party, the National Bloc, was losing power, the Syrian Parliament was adjourned and the government in power was under the unpopular Shaikh Taj al-Din al-Hasani. France was also refusing to negotiate a new treaty with Syria. In a move to squash the National Bloc altogether, the French authorities closed the office of the National Bloc in Damascus on January 20, 1936, and arrested two leaders from the Bloc: Fakhri al-Barudi and Sayf al-Din al-Ma’min.

Irish republican prisoners campaign for special status, 1976—1981

Country
Northern Ireland
United Kingdom
Time period
September, 1976 to October, 1981
Classification
Change
Cluster
Human Rights
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Samia Abbass, 05/12/2010

Hunger strikes have a long history in Ireland dating back to the medieval periods when Cealachan, a method of gaining justice for some perceived offense through starvation, was codified in the civil code called the Senchus Mor. This starvation tactic, whereby the victim fasted on the doorstep of their wrongdoer, could be used to settle or recover a debt, or address an injustice – the threat lay in that if the complainant was allowed to die on the defendant’s doorstep, that person would be held responsible for the death and the victim’s family.

Northern Ireland Nationalists campaign for equality, 1967–1972

Country
Northern Ireland
Time period
February, 1967 to January, 1972
Classification
Change
Cluster
Human Rights
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
7.5 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Julio Alicea, 10/10/2010

Following World War I, the United Kingdom’s Parliament approved the Government of Ireland Act. Passed in 1920, the act partitioned Ireland and created two separate entities: Northern and Southern Ireland. Both Irelands had their own parliaments, and the Parliament of the United Kingdom hoped that one day the Irish parliaments would consent to unite the two Irelands into one Ireland, but any progress for unity would be halted by excessive violence.

Irish workers general strike in Dublin, 1913

Country
Ireland
Time period
August 26, 1913 to January, 1914
Classification
Change
Cluster
Economic Justice
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
4 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Samia Abbass 24/10/2010

The Dublin strike of 1913 occurred against a backdrop of deplorable living conditions for workers in the city, as well as widespread economic stagnation. The death rate was high at 27.6 per 1000, and there was a high infant mortality rate as well. Unemployment was at an all-time low, and unskilled, casual workers had a particularly hard time finding jobs and supporting their families. Poor union organization gave unskilled workers very few outlets for improving their situation. An added layer of division to that between rich and poor was the sectarian divide.

Fijian oil industry workers strike for higher wages and benefits, 1959

Country
Fiji
Time period
December 7, 1959 to December 15, 1959
Classification
Change
Cluster
Economic Justice
Total points
4 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
William Lawrence 24/11/2010

In the 1950s, many young Fijians moved from far-flung island villages to Suva, the largest city of this small British colony.  In Suva, they found a stagnant economy that was unable to provide work for the influx of residents.  For those lucky enough to find employment, the de facto minimum wage was less than the cost of living.  The British colonial government was not concerned about labor unrest, however—racial barriers had always served to dampen dissent.  Fiji was populated at this time by a mix of local Fijians, Europeans, and laborers from India and elsewhere in As

U'wa people block Occidental Petroleum (Colombia), 1995-2001

Country
Colombia
Time period
Late, 1995 to May, 2001
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Environment
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
9 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Zein Nakhoda, 14/05/2011

The U’wa people have practiced their traditional culture in the Northeast forests of the Colombian Andes since time immemorial. At the end of the 20th century, there were up to 5,000 people in U’wa communities. 

Maori resistance to British land seizure at Parihaka, New Zealand, 1879-81

Country
New Zealand
Time period
February, 1879 to 5 November, 1881
Classification
Defense
Cluster
National/Ethnic Identity
Economic Justice
Total points
3 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Zein Nakhoda 14/05/2011

The Taranaki region of present day New Zealand spreads from the central plateau of the North Island to the western coast. The Maori people, indigenous to the region, once inhabited it and the surrounding areas. By 1860, New Zealand had been a colony of Britain for nearly 20 years and land conflicts were common as growing European settlements encroached onto Maori land; British representatives were determined to assert their authority over the whole country.

Nuxalk People obstruct logging of Itsa old-growth forest, 1995-1998

Country
Canada
Time period
September, 1995 to October, 1998
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Environment
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
4 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
William Lawrence, 08/05/2011

The Nuxalk people live mid-way up the British Columbian coast, in the region around the town Bella Coola. The Nuxalk have long refused to enter into any treaties with Canada or cede any of their ancestral territory to the national or provincial government. As such, they still claim sovereign rights to much land that the government claims belongs to it. One of those areas is King Island. On King Island is a valley called Itsa, which, according to the Nuxalk, is the sacred place of origin of their people.

Indigenous Peoples in Sakhalin, Russia, campaign against oil extraction, 2005-2007

Country
Russia
Time period
January, 2005 to January, 2007
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Economic Justice
Environment
Human Rights
Total points
6 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Hannah Jones, 04/02/2011

Sakhalin, an island off the eastern Russian coast and home to many indigenous groups, has long been of extreme interest to oil and gas companies. Exxon, Shell, British Petroleum, and their subsidiaries (Sakhalin Energy being a main one) had been extracting oil on and around the island for 8 years. Shell started working on Sakhalin II, the world’s largest integrated oil and gas project, in 1999.

Tahitians campaign to stop French nuclear testing, 1995

Country
French Polynesia
Time period
June 29, 1995 to January, 1996
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Environment
Human Rights
Peace
Total points
4 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Hannah Jones, 22/03/2011

France has conducted nuclear tests in its colonies since before the Cold War began. It conducted atmospheric nuclear tests in Algeria up until 1962 when they won their independence. Consequently, France began testing in French Polynesia in 1966 instead, and by 1974, had moved to underground tests. From 1966 to 1992, France conducted 41 atmospheric tests and 138 underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. 

Rapa Nui campaign for immigration regulation, 2009

Country
Chile
Time period
17 August, 2009 to 24 October, 2009
Classification
Change
Cluster
Environment
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
7 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Ashley Banks, 29/04/2011

Easter Island (or Rapa Nui) is most commonly known for its moai, monumental stone statues resembling heads. The island has over 800 of these statues, which are a large attraction for tourists in the area. The Rapa Nui people do not mind the tourism that travels through the island - in fact, they benefit from it. They do, however, take issue with the Chilean residents who freely settle in the area.

Bolivians win democratic control of the country's gas reserves, 2003-2005

Country
Bolivia
Time period
Mid-September, 2003 to Mid-June, 2005
Classification
Change
Cluster
Economic Justice
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Danny Hirschel-Burns, 24/04/11

Bolivia contains significant natural resources, but also has a long history of exploitation by foreign powers.  One of these resources is natural gas.  Just like the precious metals from Potosí, however, the gas was mostly exported (partially due to low demand within Bolivia) as a raw material, meaning very little wealth stayed in Bolivia, and the wealth that did remain was concentrated in a few, mostly white, hands.  In protest of this policy tens of thousands of Bolivian activists, who mostly came from indigenous backgrounds, worked toward the nationalization of the nation’

Paraguayan indigenous peoples resist the Stroessner regime, 1969-1989

Country
Paraguay
Time period
1969 to 1989
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
5 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Meghan Auker Becker, 11/04/2010

In 1954, a young military officer, Alfredo Stroessner, organized a military coup and overthrew Paraguayan President Federico Chávez. A devoted anti-communist, Stroessner declared a state of siege and suspended constitutional freedoms for the entirety of his 35-year rule. Throughout Stroessner’s last two decades in power, indigenous people organized widely to oppose the negative effects that his massive development projects were having on their communities.

Naga campaign for leader to return to the Manipur Region, 2010

Country
India
Time period
April 11, 2010 to June 17, 2010
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Human Rights
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
3 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Elowyn Corby, 26/03/2011

The Naga people have been entrenched in a largely violent struggle with the Indian government since the 19th century in an attempt to unify and secure the independence of areas in northeast India that are primarily populated by members of the Naga community.  The National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN)--the leading Naga rebel group--declared a ceasefire with the Indian government in 1997 in order to begin peace talks, but little progress has been made since that point. 

Costa Rican communities defeat U.S. oil companies to protect local environment, 1999-2002

Country
Costa Rica
Time period
November, 1999 to February, 2002
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Environment
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Aden Tedla 25/02/2010

Famous for its ecological wildlife, tropical rainforests, beaches, mangroves, and coral reefs, the Talamanca region of southeastern Costa Rica is one of the most biologically rich areas in the world. It has gained protection as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and ecological conservation efforts have helped spur the region’s flourishing eco-tourism industry. In addition to fishing, coffee, and banana exports, eco-tourism is a major source of income for local communities and indigenous groups, which include the Bribri and Cabecar.

Solomon Islanders withdraw from colonialism (“Maasina Rule”), 1944-52

Country
Solomon Islands
Time period
1944 to 1952
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Economic Justice
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
7 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
William Lawrence, 12/3/2011

As on many Pacific islands, the British colonial rulers of the Solomon Islands set up an economy based on an inter-island trade in indigenous labor. Islanders were often just as happy to avoid the labor trade and continue living in their traditional subsistence economy, so the British instituted coercive methods to encourage people to work on plantations and, during World War II, in military industries. One of these methods was a strict indentured labor system that prohibited laborers from removing themselves from contracts once signed.

Marshall Islanders campaign against nuclear testing sites, 1982

Country
Marshall Islands
Time period
June 19, 1982 to June, 1983
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Economic Justice
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
8 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Kira Kern 27/02/2011

The Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands is home to the Kwajalein Missile Range, which the government leased to the United States beginning in 1978.  From the beginning, Marshall Islands natives protested U.S. usage of the range.

Black Rhodesian railroad workers strike for better pay, 1945

Country
Zimbabwe
Zambia
Time period
20 October, 1945 to 4 November, 1945
Classification
Change
Defense
Cluster
Economic Justice
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
6 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
William Lawrence, 15/2/2011

Workers in the British colony of Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, bore an increased workload to support the war effort during WWII. As extraction of mineral resources increased, employees of Rhodesia Railways worked upward of 65 hours per week to transport the minerals to ports on the Indian Ocean. While white European railway workers had strong unions representing them, black African employees received inferior treatment and lower pay grades than whites.

Tongan public servants strike for higher wages, 2005

Country
Tonga
Time period
July 22, 2005 to September 3, 2005
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Economic Justice
Human Rights
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Hannah Jones, 11/04/2010

The Kingdom of Tonga is a small island nation in the South Pacific. It is one of the few that did not undergo formal colonization, though became a British-protected state in 1900. Despite this, however, it has retained its own system of government: monarchy. The political structure of the country had barely changed since King Taufa’ahua drafted the constitution in 1875. The cabinet and 2/3 of the parliament are appointed by the king, so the people of the country have very little representation.

Native Americans and environmentalists campaign to remove Klamath Basin Dam, 2004-2010

Country
United States
Time period
July, 2004 to February, 2010
Classification
Change
Cluster
Environment
Total points
7 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Rebecca Contreras, 06/04/2011

The Klamath was one of the largest and most important rivers in the American northwest, running through Oregon and California. It was home to four Native American tribes and many fishermen and provided irrigation water for nearby farmers. Between 1902 and 1962, energy producing PacifiCorp constructed five dams on the Klamath for hydropower purposes. Although PacifiCorp has turned a consistent profit since then, the environmental damage caused by the dams has been enormous.