included innovative organizational forms/communication forms

INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATION/COMMUNICATION. In general it will apply if something really jumps out at you about how the campaigners organized themselves, communicated with one another, or communicated with a wider audience. Common organizational forms might be regular meetings, hierarchical structure or a main organization with satellites. Innovative forms may include dispersed leadership (or no leadership roles at all), consensus decision making, anything that seems unique in terms of how the group works... The general assemblies of the Occupy movement might fit here, for example. One clear example of innovative communication with a wider audience is in the case U.S. street artists protest against art censorship of artist Blu, 2010-2011, in which street artists used new graphics and public art to pass on their message. In terms of organizational communication, activists in Serbia used the Internet in 1999 to communicate about future protests and the police weren't able to catch on because the use of this technology was innovative at the time. Today Serbian use of the Internet would not be called innovative by the GNAD. In the 2010 Arab Awakening a similar situation may be the use of twitter and blogs to communicate about the campaign. In Egypt, people from outside of the country were also able to lend their Internet service to Egyptians when their Internet was cut off. This sort of innovation often comes up when the usual forms of communication or organization are impossible to use or would be tactically insufficient. Another clear example is the White Rose resistance in Germany during Hitler's regime. The students in this resistance group couldn't organize openly, but to get around this they printed a few leaflets in private, asking readers to make as many copies as possible, and used women to transport them to different areas of the country because they were less likely to be stopped and searched. - The above descriptive material is by Max Rennebohm 2/13 Context matters. Whether a case deserves a tag has to do with whether the practice is innovative in terms of time and place. The wide use of twitter and other electronic forms of communication in the Arab Awakening deserves a tag because it wasn't commonplace then. Now it would be routine for protests, and wouldn't deserve the tag. At Occupy sites in 2011 the "mic-check" was an innovation. A year later it was no longer innovative. The same is true with organizational forms. The affinity group as the basic unit for mass protests, analogous to the platoon in military combat, was innovative in the U.S. in the 1960s and '70s. Now it is not. The GNAD looks for means of communication and structures of organization that are different from how nonviolent action was ordinarily accompanied in that place and time.

San Francisco strippers win right to form a union, 1996-1997


The Lusty Lady was a strip club in San Francisco. Opened since 1976, this North Beach club featured exotic dancers “Lusties” in a peep show on a stage and in individual booths. While being one of the most popular spots for nightlife in the city, the Lusty Lady was infamous among the dancers for its random firings and pay cuts, racist and ambiguous shift policies, and no-sick-day rules. According to Antonia Crane, a former stripper at the Club, “[the Lusty Lady] is playing the notoriously exploitative game in the adult entertainment world.”

Chinese-Americans protest conviction of NYPD Officer Peter Liang, 2016


On 20 November 2014, a New York police officer Peter Liang, joined by his partner, Shaun Landau, entered the Louis H. Pink Houses for a routine patrol of the Brooklyn public housing complex. During the vertical-patrol of the building, Liang drew his weapon as he opened the door to the stairwell. According to Liang’s defense, a loud noise startled him which caused him to accidentally pull the trigger. The bullet ricocheted against the wall and fatally struck Akai Gurley, who had entered the stairwell with his friend, Melissa Butler, a floor below.

Black residents of Diamond win fight with Shell Chemical for relocation 1989-2002


In the early 1950s, Royal Dutch/Shell purchased land in the community of Diamond, Louisiana and built a chemical plant. Margie Richard, a Black resident of Diamond, founded Concerned Citizens of Norco (CCN) in 1989 after two large-scale accidents at the Shell/Motiva Chemical plant. A pipeline explosion in 1973 killed two Diamond residents, while another event in 1988 killed seven workers.

Emelle residents protest Chemical Waste Management hazardous waste landfill 1978-1995


In 1978, Chemical Waste Management Inc. (CWM), a subsidiary of Waste Management Inc. (WMX), bought 300-acres of land near Emelle, Alabama for a hazardous waste landfill. Residents did not have the opportunity to protest the landfill prior to its construction because CWM was not legally obligated to disclose information about land use.

Paul Robeson High School Students in New York Campaign Against Closing, 2009-2011


Paul Robeson High School opened in Brooklyn, New York, 1984, as a replacement for the closed Alexander Hamilton High School. The school board’s vision for the new Robeson High School focused primarily on decreasing the dropout rate. To ensure this, the board replaced most of the Hamilton teachers with new ones and created a new application process for students. At first, Robeson did see an increase in the graduation rate, earning it recognition in The New York Times. However, in 2004, the graduation rate began to slowly decrease.

Students Win Gay-Straight Alliance Club at Flour Bluff, Texas, High School 2010-2011


In November 2010, Bianca “Nikki” Peet attempted to start a Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) in Flour Bluff, Texas, part of the greater Corpus Christi area. She initially went through the normal channels within the local high school, but the school’s principal, James Crenshaw, denied her request to form a GSA. Crenshaw asked her to change the club’s name and mission and come back for reconsideration. After this initial denial, Peet revised the club’s mission statement. She resubmitted it in January of 2011 and was again denied.

Citizens stop development companies’ destruction of bay habitat in Manatee County, Florida, 2013


On 6 June 2013, developers Carlos Beruff and Larry Lieberman asked
Florida’s Manatee County Commission for environmental exceptions and
zoning changes to Long Bar Pointe, a 523-acre area of land along
Sarasota Bay. In 2012, Lieberman, the land’s owner, as well as the
president and founder of Sarasota’s Barrington Group, partnered with
Beruff of Medallion Homes to complete the development project. Beruff
and Lieberman aimed to build a 300-room hotel, two retail centers, a
convention center, 1,086 single-family homes, 1,587 low-rise multi

Kurdish Men Wear Women's Clothes for Gender Equality, 2013


On 15 April 2013, policemen in Marivan, Iran executed a form of criminal
punishment that quickly garnered public criticism. A 25 year old man,
Tawfik Dabash, had been convicted of “disturbing public order,” and
police later paraded him around the city in handcuffs wearing
traditional Kurdish women’s clothes (similar to the bridal robe) in
order to humiliate him. Later that day, Kurdish women of Marivan, who
had been historically oppressed on the basis of both gender and ethnic
identity, quickly organized into a 400-person march through the city to

Senegalese successfully protest proposal of change to Constitution, 2011


Abdoulaye Wade became the democratically elected President of Senegal in 2000. The country was one of Africa’s most stable democracies, and had never experienced a coup. During his term as President, the Constitution was changed to limit Presidents to two terms. In 2009, Wade announced that he would not run for a third time. However, his government still suffered from low popularity. Frequent power outages, government scandals, and economic problems bred popular discontent.

Belgian doctors strike to block single-payer healthcare, 1964


During the 1950’s and 60’s, as many countries advanced and became more
industrialized, doctors in organized medicine tried to push back against
the post-World War II trend of increased state involvement in medical
care. The worry was that state involvement would, over time, reduce
doctors’ income and self-governance. Belgium was a unitary state in the
1960’s and only became a constitutional federation in 1993. Belgium’s
social insurance system was private but also corporatist. At the time,
the system consisted of five health insurance funds called mutualités.

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