Browse Cases

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Egyptian Muslims create human barriers to protect Coptic Egyptians and stand against religious militancy and government inaction, 2011

Country
Egypt
Time period
7th January, 2011 to 7th January, 2011
Classification
Change
Third-party nonviolent intervention
Cluster
Human Rights
National/Ethnic Identity
Peace
Total points
6.5 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Jan Stander, 24/10/2013

On New Year’s
Eve, in 2010, Islamic militants attacked the Saints Church in Alexandria,
raising tensions and concerns about religious violence in Egypt. The attack was
only the most recent occurrence of religious violence and militancy in Egypt.
Many Egyptians perceived the issue as an epidemic, as well as the failings of
the Egyptian government to ensure the right to freedom of religious beliefs.
The growing resentment of government inaction and lack of representation led to
the Egyptian majority taking matters into their own hands through a campaign to

Egyptian textile workers strike for bonuses and to protest corruption, 2006

Country
Egypt
Time period
5 December, 2006 to 10 December, 2006
Classification
Change
Cluster
Economic Justice
Total points
9 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Elliana Bisgaard-Church, 06/11/2011

On March 3, 2006, Egyptian Prime Minister Ahmad Nazif announced that all public-sector manufacturing workers would be given an increase in their annual bonuses. The workers of Mahalla al-Kubra’s Misr Spinning and Weaving Company, the country’s largest public sector textile company employing 27,000 people, were overjoyed at the decree. 

Egyptian workers strike and occupy textile factory for better pay, representation, and conditions, 2007

Country
Egypt
Time period
23 September, 2007 to 28 September, 2007
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Economic Justice
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Elliana Bisgaard-Church, 29/10/2011

Misr Spinning and Weaving Company is the largest public sector Egyptian textile company, employing 27,000 workers in the mid-2000s.  The company is located in the Nile Delta town Mahalla al-Kubra and had a history of workers protests, the most significant of which occurred in December 2006 when about 20,000 of the company’s employees struck (see "Egyptian textile workers strike for bonuses and prrotest corruption, 2006").

Egyptians campaign for independence, 1919-1922

Country
Egypt
Time period
13 January, 1919 to February, 1922
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Elliana Bisgaard-Church, 23/10/2011

Egypt became a British protectorate on December 14, 1914.  During World War I agitation towards the British increased as all sects of the population united in their discontent. British rule caused Egypt’s involvement in the war to increase – 1.5 million Egyptians were conscripted in the Labour Corps and much of the country’s infrastructure was seized for the army – contributing to the dissatisfaction.

Kefaya protests Mubarak's referendum and re-election, Egypt, 2005

Country
Egypt
Time period
March, 2005 to September, 2005
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Total points
3 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Elliana Bisgaard-Church, 08/10/2011

Kefaya (meaning ‘Enough’ in Arabic), is the moniker for the grassroots coalition the Egyptian Movement for Change.  Beginning in 2003, Kefaya was a group of Egyptians of various political parties and ideologies that first met to discuss the Egyptian political scene.  The group became official after affiliated Egyptian intellectuals and political activists created and signed a petition demanding fair and transparent democratic presidential elections with multiple candidates in August 2004; the petition became Kefaya’s founding declaration.

Egyptians bring down dictatorship of Hosni Mubarak, 2011

Country
Egypt
Time period
January 25, 2011 to February 11, 2011
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Zein Nakhoda and William Lawrence, 14/5/2011

Beginning in 1981, Hosni Mubarak ruled Egypt for over twenty-nine years. Though he ran for
presidential reelection several times, elections were marked by widespread
fraud, and opposing politicians were legally prohibited from running against
Mubarak until 2005. Virtually all key officials in government were from
Mubarak's National Democratic Party (NDP). Mubarak constructed a vast security
apparatus to control public dissent; in the 1990s, citizens would only whisper
his name for fear of reprisal. For his entire tenure as president, Egypt was in

Egyptian laborers strike for pay, ~1170 BCE

Country
Egypt
Time period
1170 BCE, -1 to 1170 BCE, -1
Classification
Change
Cluster
Economic Justice
Total points
8 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Kelly Schoolmeester 22/03/2010

The first labor strike in recorded history took place in the 12th Century, BCE, in Egypt. The strike was recorded on papyrus, discovered in Egypt, and though it is damaged and incomplete, it is the only record of the strike in existence. All records of this strike refer to dates with reference to the then-current Pharaoh, Ramses III. During the 29th year of his reign (roughly 1170 BCE), artisans tasked with building the necropolis (burial chambers) of King Ramses III repeatedly struck, apparently complaining of insufficient rations.

Egyptian cab drivers protest colonial animal laws, 1906-1907

Country
Egypt
Time period
November, 1906 to April 18, 1907
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Economic Justice
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
9 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Jasper Goldberg 12/12/2009

Cairo at the beginning of the 20th century was a fast growing city under British control. Many of the British in Cairo saw themselves as “civilizing” or “modernizing” the city as part of “the white man’s burden” to help those “lesser” than him. One such group that sought to do this was the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA). The RSPCA opened a branch in Cairo in the 1890’s, where animal cruelty prevention efforts had not gotten off to a very successful start. They did build a hospital to treat animals in the city.