033. Fraternization

Socializing with, for example, police or soldiers, with the intention of gaining them as allies or at least reducing their capacity to injure the campaign. This is the opposite of the social boycott.

Showing 1-25 of 36 results

Anti-war activists march to Moscow for peace, 1960-1961

Country
International
United States
Time period
December 1, 1960 to October, 1961
Classification
Change
Cluster
Peace
Total points
5 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Kelly Schoolmeester, 26/04/2010

On December 1, 1960, just after a rally in San Francisco, ten members of the Committee for Non-Violent Action marched out of the city, intent on marching across the country, all the way to Moscow in the Soviet Union. Their chances for success were slim. Despite the backing of the (admittedly small) CNVA, marching most of the way around the world is a monumental task. Even if the distance were not an issue, the Soviet Union was notoriously unsympathetic to peace groups or protest action in general. Breaching the Iron Curtain would not be easy.

Julia Butterfly Hill defends California redwoods, 1999

Country
United States
Time period
December 10, 1997 to December 23, 1999
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Environment
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Olivia Ensign, 01/05/2010

The economy of the town of Stafford, located in Humboldt County, has been dominated by timber production since the seventeenth century. Pacific Lumber Company, a family owned company, was the primary producer of lumber in the area from 1885 to 1985. Then in 1985 Maxxam Corporation, a Texas based company staged a hostile takeover of Pacific Lumber. This marked an aggressive stepping up in cutting, resulting in a policy of clear cutting. This change in policy was met with wariness by many local people, who feared the long-term sustainability of this method.

Panamanians campaign to overthrow dictator (The Civic Crusade), 1987-1989

Country
Panama
Time period
June, 1987 to December, 1989
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Total points
6 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Meghan Auker Becker, 28/03/2010

The Civic Crusade in Panama was an effort by the Panamanian population to dislodge the military dictatorship of Manuel Noriega through the creation of political organizations and the mobilization of numerous demonstrations and protests. Panama’s military regime began in 1968 when Omar Torrijos Herrera, a populist general, led a coup and ousted Arnulfo Arias Madrid from the presidency of Panama.

Nonviolent intervention in Philippines during military clash, 1986

Country
Philippines
Time period
February 22, 1986 to February 24, 1986
Classification
Third-party nonviolent intervention
Cluster
Peace
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Anthony Phalen, 08/01/2010

The third party nonviolent intervention during the People Power revolution came about as a result of the turbulent political situation in the Philippines in 1986. After the assassination of opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. in 1983, there were major protests throughout the Philippines attacking the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos (see “Filipinos campaign to overthrow dictator (People Power), 1983-1986”). These protests, combined with pressure from external forces forced Marcos to call for presidential elections on February 7, 1986.

Mau opposition to New Zealand rule in Samoa, 1927-1933

Country
Samoa
Time period
March, 1927 to 1933
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Democracy
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
5 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Zein Nakhoda, 03/04/2010

The Samoan archipelago, located in the southwest of the Pacific Ocean, is comprised of six main islands and several smaller ones. Prior to World War I, Germany and the United States occupied most of the Samoan Islands. During WWI, New Zealand, upon a request by Britain, captured German Samoa and established the British Military Occupation of Samoa. An influenza pandemic in November 1918 killed about 22% of the Samoan population. The administration's lack of response to the disaster became the foundation for Samoans grievances against the New Zealand administration.

Colorado disability rights activists (ADAPT) prevent budget cuts to Medicaid Home-Health Services, 2002

Country
United States
Time period
5 July, 2002 to 18 July, 2002
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Human Rights
Total points
8 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Hannah-Ruth Miller, 11/4/2010

On July 5-18, 2002, between 11 and 22 members of Colorado ADAPT (Americans for Attendant Policies Today) held a constant vigil outside of the state Human Services Building in Denver in order to protest the state Health Care Policy Finance (HCPF) committee making any cuts, caps, or changes to the community long-term care policy in Colorado Medicaid. Their goal was to put pressure on HCPF in order to enforce the promises that HCPF had previously made to ADAPT about not cutting Medicaid funds and services.

U.S. disability activists (ADAPT) campaign against rebuilding of Laguna Honda Hospital, 2001

Country
United States
Time period
20 October, 2001 to 24 October, 2001
Classification
Change
Cluster
Human Rights
Total points
5 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Hannah-Ruth Miller, 18/4/2010

On Saturday, October 20, 2001, five hundred ADAPT advocates gathered in San Francisco at the Ramada Plaza Hotel to get organized for their protest of the rebuilding of Laguna Honda, the largest nursing home in the nation, which demanded the majority of San Francisco’s Long Term Care Budget, causing community-based services to become neglected and under-funded.

Algerian citizens nonviolently intervene to prevent civil war, 1962

Country
Algeria
Time period
August 29, 1962 to September 3, 1962
Classification
Third-party nonviolent intervention
Cluster
Peace
Total points
8 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Aurora Muñoz 10/10/2009 and Max Rennebohm 29/03/2011

After over seven years of a harsh and bloody war between Algeria’s socialist National Liberation Front (FLN) and the French military, Algeria had finally claimed its independence from France in 1962.  However, internal turmoil among the state’s leaders threatened to disrupt the country’s peace. At a FLN party congress in late May 1962, one of the leading FLN members, Ahmed Ben Bella, convinced the FLN to vote out the government-in-exile, the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA), and its leader Ben Youssef Ben Khedda.  

Filipinos campaign to overthrow dictator (People Power), 1983-1986

Country
Philippines
Time period
August, 1983 to February, 1986
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Julio Alicea 10/05/2011

Ferdinand Marcos was elected president of the Philippines in 1965. Marcos was reelected in 1969 and when barred to run for a third term, he declared martial law and gave himself near absolute power. Marcos assumed full control of the military, dissolved congress, and had many of his political opponents and critics arrested. One of his more prominent critics had been Senator Benigno Aquino who was prepared to challenge Marcos in the 1973 election, had it occurred. 

Acehnese struggle for self-determination, 1998-2001

Country
Indonesia
Aceh
Time period
May, 1998 to July, 2001
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Economic Justice
Human Rights
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
6 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Samantha Bennett 20/02/2011 and Zein Nakhoda 14/05/2011

For a half-century prior to the Acehnese campaign, the Indonesian government had ruled Aceh, located at the northwestern end of the island of Sumatra. The Acehnese suffered a high level of human rights abuses at the hands of the Indonesian government. From the 1950s until 1998, an Acehnese group resisted using violence.  But in the late 1990’s, their resistance, led by student activists, took the form of nonviolence in a series of rallies, boycotts and strikes.

Egyptians bring down dictatorship of Hosni Mubarak, 2011

Country
Egypt
Time period
January 25, 2011 to February 11, 2011
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Zein Nakhoda and William Lawrence, 14/5/2011

Beginning in 1981, Hosni Mubarak ruled Egypt for over twenty-nine years. Though he ran for
presidential reelection several times, elections were marked by widespread
fraud, and opposing politicians were legally prohibited from running against
Mubarak until 2005. Virtually all key officials in government were from
Mubarak's National Democratic Party (NDP). Mubarak constructed a vast security
apparatus to control public dissent; in the 1990s, citizens would only whisper
his name for fear of reprisal. For his entire tenure as president, Egypt was in

Defense of Soviet state against coup, 1991

Country
Russia
Soviet Union
Time period
19 August, 1991 to 22 August, 1991
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Democracy
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Zein Nakhoda, 14/05/2011

Since assuming the role of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev pushed for a program of economic openness and political restructuring, prompting resistance and suspicion from hard-line members of the Communist Party. Russia had declared its sovereignty in June 1990, beginning a period of constitutional reform. By the early 90’s, the Soviet Union, with Gorbachev as the first executive ‘President’, was in economic and political crisis. 

Maori resistance to British land seizure at Parihaka, New Zealand, 1879-81

Country
New Zealand
Time period
February, 1879 to 5 November, 1881
Classification
Defense
Cluster
National/Ethnic Identity
Economic Justice
Total points
3 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Zein Nakhoda 14/05/2011

The Taranaki region of present day New Zealand spreads from the central plateau of the North Island to the western coast. The Maori people, indigenous to the region, once inhabited it and the surrounding areas. By 1860, New Zealand had been a colony of Britain for nearly 20 years and land conflicts were common as growing European settlements encroached onto Maori land; British representatives were determined to assert their authority over the whole country.

Czechoslovak resistance to Soviet occupation, 1968

Country
Czechoslovakia
Czech Republic
Slovakia
Time period
21 August, 1968 to 27 August, 1968
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Democracy
Total points
7 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Zein Nakhoda, 14/5/2011

For the first eight months of 1968, the Czechoslovak Communist Party engaged in limited but significant reforms known as ‘Prague Spring,’ including declarations of freedom of expression and organization. The reform movement began in January, when moderate Alexander Dubcek replaced the Party’s hard-line First Secretary. 

Grenadians seek greater political participation (The New Jewel Movement), 1973-1979

Country
Grenada
Time period
March 11, 1973 to March 10, 1979
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
Human Rights
Total points
7 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Anjali Cadambi, 15/11/2010

Grenada under the dictatorship of Eric Gairy suffered from economic deterioration and widespread corruption. In the face of domestic repression, support for the Left built strength during events leading up to the creation of the New Jewel Movement (NJM). In November 1970, 30 nurses staged a non-violent protest demonstration against poor working conditions at St. George’s General Hospital, their place of work. They were joined by youth groups, trade unions, and school children. Police responded by teargasing demonstrators and arresting 22 nurses.

Greenpeace campaigns against whaling, 1975-1982

Country
International
Time period
1975 to 1982
Classification
Change
Cluster
Environment
Total points
8 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Summer Miller-Walfish, 23/10/2010

One of the biggest leaders in the early environmental movement was a group called Greenpeace. Greenpeace was formed in the early 1970s and to this day continues to play a major role in leading the movement for environmental change. One of Greenpeace’s first campaigns was the campaign to stop whaling, which began in 1973.

Bardoli peasants campaign against the Government of Bombay, 1928

Country
India
Time period
February 12, 1928 to August 4, 1928
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Economic Justice
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Adriana Popa, 07/11/2010

The Bombay Government (through its Revenue Department) had, in 1927, enhanced the land revenue assessment in the Bardoli taluka (county) by a nominal 22 percent, which, when applied, amounted in some cases to as much as 60 percent enhancement. This translated in increased land taxes. The Bardoli peasants had immediately made several claims regarding this modification, the most important of which were that the rate of enhancement was unjust and that it had been established without full and appropriate investigation.

Puerto Ricans expel United States Navy from Culebra Island, 1970-1974

Country
Puerto Rico
United States
Time period
1970 to 1974
Classification
Change
Cluster
National/Ethnic Identity
Human Rights
Peace
Environment
Total points
9 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Nathalie Schils, 06/07/2011

In 1970, Puerto Rico was a non-sovereign territory of the United States. Its residents were U.S. citizens but could not vote in presidential elections, nor did they have political representation in the U.S. Congress, although they could serve and be drafted in the U.S. armed forces. At the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. Navy eliminated the principal town on the island of Culebra and evicted its residents so that a marine base could be built. In 1941, President Roosevelt claimed exclusive rights to the air space above Culebra as well as a three-mile wide radius around the island.

Bukidnon residents protest logging activity in the Philippines, 1987-1989

Country
Philippines
Time period
January, 1987 to September, 1989
Classification
Change
Cluster
Environment
Total points
8 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Nathalie Schils, 02/08/2011

After President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972, concessions and rights were granted to numerous major forest companies in the Philippines.  Certain islands saw more than 70% of their natural forests destroyed, including the Bukidnon province on Mindanao Island, which retained less than 20% of its natural forests by the 1980s.  The environmental impact of major deforestation includes increased run-off and erosion, which can deplete local harvests and lead to greater flooding.  

Indians embrace trees (Chipko) to stop logging activity, 1971-1974

Country
India
Time period
October, 1971 to April, 1974
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Environment
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Nathalie Schils, 05/08/2011

After the Indo-Chinese border conflict ended in 1963, access to the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, a region encompassing eight different districts in the Himalayas, was greatly expanded.  The money for this expansion, including highway building, generally came from logging companies that wanted access to the vast timber forests in this area of the country.  Poor forest management led to increased erosion, depleted water resources, lower agricultural yields and greater flooding.

Lebanese campaign for democracy (Independence Intifada or Cedar Revolution), 2005

Country
Lebanon
Time period
14 February, 2005 to 7 April, 2005
Classification
Change
Cluster
Democracy
National/Ethnic Identity
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Markus Schlotterbeck 25/02/2009 and Max Rennebohm 15/08/2011

On February 14, 2005, a massive car-bomb explosion rocked Beirut, Lebanon, which killed twenty-two people, including former prime minister and leader of the opposition parties Rafiq Hariri. Suspicions were high that Syria, which had occupied Lebanon with troops and intelligence agents for three decades, was behind the attack. Parliamentary elections were approaching and the anti-Syria opposition was widely expected to win. Rafiq Hariri was a charismatic billionaire businessman who had become the most popular opposition politician in Lebanon.

Burmese citizens campaign for democracy, 1988

Country
Burma
Myanmar
Time period
March, 1988 to November, 1988
Classification
Change
Cluster
Human Rights
Economic Justice
Democracy
Total points
6 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Sarah Noble, 09/06/2009

By the year 1988, political, social and economic life in Burma was under the repressive military rule of the Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP), headed by General Ne Win.  Since the military coup in 1962, the Burmese had been subjected to extreme socioeconomic isolation and heavy state control that extended from the media and universities to social events and monasteries. Although citizens, and in particular students, protested throughout the 60’s, violent repression was enough to cease all opposition until 1987 when unrest began to stir once again within the Burmese population.

Ukrainians overthrow dictatorship (Orange Revolution), 2004

Country
Ukraine
Time period
22 November, 2004 to 8 December, 2004
Classification
Defense
Cluster
Democracy
Total points
10 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Max Rennebohm, 09/09/2011

The October 31, 2004, presidential elections in Ukraine pitted popular opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko against Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych.  The incumbent president, Leonid Kuchma, had personally chosen Yanukovych as his successor, but their political party was losing popular support.  Yushchenko, supported by a united opposition, was expected to win the election.  However, the October 31 election yielded no winner, with each candidate receiving about 40% of the votes.  At this point most opposition groups, such as the student group Pora, already suspected fr

Shanti Sena (Indian Peace Brigade) intervenes in deadly Hindu/Muslim riots, Ahmedabad 1969

Country
India
Time period
September, 1969 to January, 1970
Classification
Third-party nonviolent intervention
Cluster
Peace
Total points
5 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Nancy Liu, 14/10/2011

After India’s independence (for example see, “Indians campaign for independence (Salt Satyagraha), 1930-1931”), tensions between Hindus and Muslims erupted in violent riots in the north of what was an undivided India. At that time, Gandhi had the idea of creating Shanti Sena, or the Gandhian Peace Army, an army of nonviolent soldiers that could keep the peace. Gandhi planned a conference in 1948 at his Sevagram Ashram to discuss the organization of the Shanti Sena, but he was assassinated before talks began.

Shanti Sena (Indian Peace Brigade) intervenes in Bhiwandi riots, 1970

Country
India
Time period
7 May, 1970 to 19 May, 1970
Classification
Third-party nonviolent intervention
Cluster
Peace
Total points
7 out of 10 points
Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy
Nancy Liu, 22/10/2011

After India’s independence in 1947 (for example see, “Indians campaign for independence (Salt Satyagraha), 1930-1931”), tensions between Hindus and Muslims erupted in violent riots in the north of what was an undivided India. This was in part the legacy of the “divide-and-rule” strategy of the British Empire. When tensions flared, Gandhi had the idea of creating Shanti Sena, or Peace Army, an army of nonviolent soldiers that could keep the peace.