Time period notes
Methods in 1st segment
Methods in 2nd segment
Methods in 3rd segment
Methods in 4th segment
Methods in 5th segment
Methods in 6th segment
Notes on Methods
Involvement of social elites
Nonviolent responses of opponent
Additional notes on joining/exiting order
Success in achieving specific demands/goals
Prior to 1919 in El Salvador, labor unions were virtually nonexistent and even as they formed, they were not recognized by the government until 1923 and 1924. Living and working under the oppressive Meléndez-Quiñónez regime (in power from 1913 to 1931) made organizing particularly challenging. So when labor movements did begin to arise, they came in waves with many different groups working at the same time. Among these groups were the Zapateros (shoemakers).
Before launching their strike, the guild of Zapateros discussed and established their list of grievances: (1) low wages, (2) hunger, (3) mass, unjustified dismissals, (4) personal abuse and mistreatment. With that, they were able to agree, over time, on a list of demands: (1) higher wages, (2) a stop to arbitrary dismissals, (3) fair treatment for employees.
In February of 1921, the Zapateros actualized their strike during the Catholic celebration of Holy Week. This week was chosen strategically because it is a time when shop owners prepare their storefront windows with displays of their nicest items to attract the passersby looking to purchase new outfits for the religious celebrations. By striking during Holy Week, the Zapateros drew much attention from their employers who were unable to supply new shoes to shopkeepers.
On 28 February, the Zapateros’ strike ended with the strikers walking away from negotiations triumphant.
After 1931, Miguel Mármol, who, at the age of sixteen, had assisted in organizing the Zapateros strike, became president of the Alianza Nacional de Zapateros (National Alliance of Shoemakers) which reached a national level.
Many labor organizers in El Salvador during this time period were heavily influenced by the Russian Revolution of 1917. (1)
"Servicio Inormativo Ecuménico Y Popular SIEP." Servicio Inormativo Ecuménico Y Popular SIEP. Servicio Informativo Ecuménico Y Popular SIEP – El Salvador, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://www.ecumenico.org/article/resena-historica-de-la-izquierda-en-el-salvador/>.
Handal, Schafik J. "La Experiencia Del PCS, El MÃ¡s Rico Patrimonio PolÃtico De La Clase Obrera Y Del PueblosalvadoreÃ±o." Schafik Handal (1975): La Experiencia Del PCS, El MÃ¡s Rico Patrimonio PolÃtico De La Clase Obrera Y Del Pueblo SalvadoreÃ±o. N.p., 28 Mar. 1975. Web. Sept.-Oct. 2012. <http://www.marxists.org/espanol/handal/1975/001.htm>.
Hernandez, Yolanda, Elsy L. Lopez, and Jennie Gonzalez. Derecho Colectivo De Trabajo Según La Legislación Laboral Salvadoreña. Contratos Colectivos De Trabajo. Universidad Francisco Gavidia, Mar. 2006. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://wwwisis.ufg.edu.sv/wwwisis/documentos/TE/344.01-A536d/344.01-A536d.pdf>.
Woods, Alan. "La Revolución Salvadoreña ." La Revolución Salvadoreña . Centro De Estudios Socialistas, 25 May 1982. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://www.centromarx.org/index.php/documentos/historia/latinoamerica/el-salvador/96-la-revolucion-salvadorena-1>.
Pineda, Roberto. "Simpatizantes FMLN Â» LAS LUCHAS POPULARES DEL SIGLO XX EN EL SALVADOR." Simpatizantes FMLN Â» LAS LUCHAS POPULARES DEL SIGLO XX EN EL SALVADOR. N.p., 6 Apr. 2011. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://www.simpatizantesfmln.org/blog/archives/3991>.