2. Also, to separate the revenues of Prince Albert from those of the country by creating a national treasury
Involvement of social elites
Nonviolent responses of opponent
Additional notes on joining/exiting order
Success in achieving specific demands/goals
Notes on outcomes
At the beginning of 1910, the Principality of Monaco was an
absolute monarchy, but by January of 1911 it had become a constitutional
government. In Monaco, the chief source of revenue was the gambling tables,
from which Prince Albert (monarch of Monaco) received a hefty sum. Discontent
over the money the Prince received and the immorality of the gambling tables,
the citizens of Monaco (or Monégasques) began a campaign in March 1910.
They had two main goals and one lesser goal. The main goals
were to establish a parliament voted upon by Monaco’s citizens, and to obtain a
constitution. If accomplished, these goals would end Prince Albert’s absolute
monarchy. Though he would remain on the throne, his power would no longer be
absolute. The other goal was for the creation of a national treasury, so that Prince
Albert’s revenues and those of the country would be separated.
In March 1910, delegates of the population confronted the
prince with a petition that stated their goals and threatened that if the
demands were not met, Prince Albert would lose his throne. Their methods for vanquishing him, had the petition failed, are unknown and may have been violent
in nature. Yet even with minimal or no violence, an uprising of the people in
Monaco was inevitably a potent threat since Monaco had no standing army or
navy, only the police of the gambling syndicate. Nonetheless, the police force
had fewer than eighty members and was portrayed at times as a joke. Therefore,
Prince Albert had little means of resisting his population.
On March 28, Prince Albert decreed elections to appoint a
parliament, which would be elected by universal suffrage. At this point, Monaco
ceased to be an absolute monarchy.
October 1910 was an eventful month for Monaco. The palace
was stormed by protesters, whom the police force could do nothing to oppose.
This “uprising” intended to warn the prince that unless he met their demands
exactly, he would be deposed and a republic would be established. It is worth
noting that no violence is mentioned within this uprising, but nonviolence is
not confirmed. Some of the language used to describe the event raises
questions, such as the words “storming” and “invasion”. Yet, in a picture from
the uprising, no weapons are visible and the protesters seem to be dressed up
for the occasion.
On October 15, Prince Albert met the citizens’ demand for a
national treasury, which separated his revenues from the country’s revenues.
Also in October, a second campaign began in Monaco. The new
campaign sought to shut down the gambling tables and dispose of the intense
French control over and within Monaco. This meant the dismissal of French
officials and dignitaries in Monaco, the end of the French Benevolent Fund
Committee, and of the Chamber of Commerce. This campaign involved riots and
demonstrations against the French. Prince Albert convinced his son, Prince
Louis, to return to Monaco to pacify the population. Initially, Prince Louis
was so well liked that the citizens of Monaco began to publicly discuss forcing
Prince Albert to resign so that Prince Louis could take his throne. Eventually,
though, the civilians grew to distrust Prince Louis and abandoned the idea.
Meanwhile, on October 19, Prince Albert promised the
Monégasques a constitution, to be written promptly. Three of Monaco’s social
elite, Messrs. Blanc, Radziwill, and Bonaparte, voiced their disapproval of
Prince Albert’s concession, particularly because it meant they lost significant
In November, protests occurred in France in response
to the anti-French sentiment in the second campaign and its attempts to
dissolve French control within Monaco.
On January 7, 1911, the constitution was established.
Finally, on May 3, 1911, the new parliament met for the first time. An election
for the parliament was to be held every four years. Within the span of the
year, Monaco had ceased to be an absolute monarchy.
It seems likely that this campaign influenced a second campaign in Monaco, which began in October 1910 and intended to shut down the gambling tables and dispose of French control over and within Monaco. (2)
A Veteran Diplomat. “Is Monaco Doomed? Other Nations Want it; Germany, Italy and France Cast Envious Eyes on the Little Principality and Its Own People Demand a Republic.” The New York Times (Dec. 11, 1910). <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F06EEDD1339E433A25752C1A9649D946196D6CF>.
“Events That Made The History of 1910---What They Were, Where They Happened And the Chief Actors in Them.” The New York Times (Jan. 1, 1911). <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9800E1DD1331E233A25752C0A9679C946096D6CF>.
“Monaco Gets Constitution.” The New York Times (Jan. 8, 1911). <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C06E0DC1331E233A2575BC0A9679C946096D6CF>.
“MONACO IS SHOWING ENMITY TO FRANCE.” The New York Times (Nov. 27, 1910). < http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9801E7DF153BE733A25754C2A9679D946196D6CF>.
“Monaco to Have Parliament.” The New York Times (March 29, 1910). <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E05E5D91E30E333A2575AC2A9659C946196D6CF>.
“Throne of the Prince of Monaco in Danger; ‘Constitution or Revolution’ the Ultimatum from Half the Subjects of the Little Kingdom.” The New York Times (March 13, 1910). <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F02E5D91139E333A25750C1A9659C946196D6CF>.