Icelandic women strike for economic and social equality, 1975


To demonstrate the indispensable work of women for Iceland’s economy and society.

Time period

October 24, 1975 to October 24, 1975


Jump to case narrative

Notes on Methods

Since the campaign was so short, methods are not able to be put into segments and instead are treated together in Additional Methods


Gerdur Stenthorsdottir was among many representatives from several women’s organizations including the Women’s Liberation Movement


Not Known

External allies

Not Known

Involvement of social elites

Involved women at every level of society. In 1985, Iceland’s president even participated in a women’s strike inspired by the 1975 strike


Employers and Icelandic government

Nonviolent responses of opponent

Not Known

Campaigner violence

Not Known

Repressive Violence

Not Known


Economic Justice
Human Rights



Group characterization

Nearly all women in Iceland

Additional notes on joining/exiting order

(Campaign lasted 1 day)
The campaign lasted only one day and all participants were a part of the strike for the entire day. Ninety percent of Icelandic women participated, whether they had paid work or did the un-paid work of caring for children and home.

Success in achieving specific demands/goals

5 out of 6 points


1 out of 1 points


3 out of 3 points

Total points

9 out of 10 points

Notes on outcomes

The striking women achieved their goal of demonstrating the importance of their work, at all levels from home to workplace, to the well being of the country. They essentially shut down most of the nation for the day. While this was their main goal, and it even led to the passage of an equal rights bill, this bill did little to change the wage disparity and employment opportunities for women in the short run.

The nationwide network of women brought about through women’s organizations not only survived, but was strengthened by the campaign

The campaign lasted only one day but grew from the small group of organizers to 90 percent of the adult female population of Iceland

Database Narrative

There were many organizations dedicated to the realization of full women’s rights in Iceland in 1975, drawing from a history of previous women’s movements that dealt with the issues of suffrage, national independence, and equal rights. Such movements had lost momentum since the 1920s when groups of women had put together women’s slates for election to parliament and municipal governments.

In 1975 the United Nations declared the International Women’s Year. When this was announced a group of representatives from five major women’s rights organizations, including the Women’s Liberation Movement, or Redstockings, met to plan events for the year. One such event they planned was a women’s “day off” to show the importance of women for Iceland’s economic and social well-being.

Those women who worked outside of the home in Iceland made less than 60 percent of the wages that men made. Women were also often unable to get jobs because they did most, if not all, of the housework and child rearing. The goal of the strike was to protest the wage discrepancy and unfair employment practices by demonstrating the crucial roles of women in Icelandic society.

Women were not to attend work if they had paid jobs, nor do any of the housework or child-care they normally did. The women’s organizations spread word of the “day off” quickly through the small country of 220,000 people. Employers prepared for the presence of large numbers of children who would have to come to work with their fathers. The strike was scheduled for October 24, 1975.

When the day arrived, 90 percent of Icelandic women participated. There was no telephone service. Newspapers were not printed because all the typesetters were women. Theaters shut down because actresses refused to work. Schools closed, or operated at limited capacity, because the majority of teachers were female. Airline flights were cancelled because flight attendants did not work that day. Bank executives had to work as tellers to keep the banks open because the female tellers had taken the day off.

Meanwhile the men had to take their kids to work and provide them with food because daycares were closed and women would not do any of the work they normally did at home.

A mass meeting was scheduled in the center of Reykjavik, Iceland’s capital, which 25,000 women attended. The women created huge traffic jams as they walked to the meeting where speakers addressed the inequality of women in Icelandic society and the necessity of a female perspective in national politics.

The strike lasted until midnight that night, when the typesetters returned to work on papers for the next day. These papers contained nothing besides articles on the women’s strike.

The next year, Iceland’s parliament passed a law guaranteeing equal rights to women and men. Although this 1976 law did little to change the disparity in wages and employment for women, it was a large political step towards true equality. The strikers had clearly achieved their goal and demonstrated the undeniable importance of women and their work in Iceland. The strike also paved the way for the election of Iceland’s, and the world’s, first democratically elected female president five years later.

Gender inequality is still an issue in Iceland and every ten years, on the anniversary of this initial strike, women stop all work to demonstrate their important positions and continue the struggle for equality.


The United Nations’ International Women’s Year (1)
Women’s strikes in Iceland every ten years from the date of this strike (2)


Durrenberger, E. Paul and Gísli Pálsson, ed. The Anthropology of Iceland. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1989. pp 87-8

“Iceland: Women Strike.” (1975, October 25). New York Times (1857-Current file),34. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2006).

Douglas, Carol Anne. “Iceland: strike.” (1985, December). Off Our Backs, 15(11), 6. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from Research Library.

"The Day the Women Went on Strike in Iceland." The Guardian. (accessed November 14, 2009)

Additional Notes

This is not a typical campaign for the database because it was so short and had such broad social, economic, and political goals. However, despite its brevity, the campaign met huge success and shows the power of social and economic noncooperation for social change.

Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy

Max Rennebohm 15/11/2009