Mexican-American miners strike for wage justice in New Mexico, 1950-1952


End to racially discriminatory working conditions, end to the dual wage system, increased insurance benefits for miners, end to poor living conditions for Mexican American miners

Time period

October, 1950 to January, 1952


United States

Location City/State/Province

Silver City, New Mexico
Jump to case narrative


International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, Virginia Jencks, Clint Jencks


Miners in Grant County

External allies

Not known

Involvement of social elites

Not known


Empire Zinc Company

Nonviolent responses of opponent

Not known

Campaigner violence

Not known

Repressive Violence

Arrested and jailed women and children


Economic Justice
Human Rights



Group characterization

women of mining families

Groups in 1st Segment

Silver City miners

Groups in 4th Segment

Women of mining families

Groups in 5th Segment

Grant county miners

Segment Length

2.5 months

Success in achieving specific demands/goals

5 out of 6 points


1 out of 1 points


3 out of 3 points

Total points

9 out of 10 points

Database Narrative

The Empire Zinc Company owned a company town and zinc mines in Silver City, New Mexico, a part of Grant County.  On 17 October 1950, the area's Local 890 chapter of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers decided to strike, demanding an end to discriminatory working conditions and the dual wage system of two-tiered pay, different for Mexican and Mexican American workers as compared to white workers. 

The workers picketed the company gates for eight months until June 1951, when the Grant County District issued a court injunction against the picketing under the threat of jail time.  In response, as the miners left the picket lines, and their wives took their place, also expanding demands to include better living conditions in the town and the addition of an indoor plumbing system.  While the women picketed, the men often took on household duties.

Local police arrested and harassed the women protesters, sometimes jailing children who were out on the lines as well.  Instances of violence also occurred. On one occasion, strikebreakers injured three women when attempting to push through the picket line.  One strikebreaker shot at the picketers, wounding one.  News of such confrontations spread to other nearby mining areas, leading many of the workers in other mines to join the Empire Zinc protest.

On 21 January 1952, Empire Zinc Corporation came to an agreement with the strikers to provide better wages and benefits, ending the strike.  They also began to provide hot water to the homes in the town. 

In 1953, a group of filmmakers went to Silver City in order to shoot a fictionalized film chronicling the strike.  The miners and their families were some of the actors in the film.  The filmmakers had previously been blacklisted as communists, and, in 1954, their film Salt of the Earth became the only film to be banned in the United States.  In the 1960s and 1970s, feminist and Chicano activists brought back the film and pushed for its circulation, and in 1992, the film was added to the Library of Congress's National Film Registry for its cultural and historical significance in the depiction of the Empire Zinc strike.


Mize, Ronald L., and Vicki L. Ruiz. "Salt of the Earth." Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 2006. 656-657.

Lopez, Hueteoti. "Their View: Film on Empire Zinc strike 60 years ago made history." Silver City Sun-News. 19 February 2012.

Clinton Jencks Papers, MSS-137. Arizona State University Libraries: Chicano Research Collection.;

Marin, Christine. "The Union, Community Organizing, and Civil Liberties: Clinton Jencks, Salt of the Earth, and Arizona Copper." Barriozona. Hispanic Institute of Social Issues.

Baker, Ellen R. On Strike and On Film: Mexican American Families and Blacklisted Filmmakers in Cold War America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy

Fatimah Hameed, 18/05/2013