Third party intervenes to prevent violence at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, 1973


The goal of Movement for a New Society was to prevent US federal forces from acting violently against the American Indian Movement members who were resisting the government's mandate to discontinue their occupation of Wounded Knee.

Time period notes

The exact time period of the Movement for a New Society intervention is not known

Time period

March, 1973 to March, 1973


United States

Location City/State/Province

Wounded Knee, South Dakota
Jump to case narrative

Methods in 1st segment

Methods in 2nd segment

Methods in 3rd segment

Methods in 4th segment

Methods in 5th segment

Methods in 6th segment

  • Marlon Brando's speech at the Academy Awards
  • the airing of Marlon Brando's Academy Award Speech
  • Marlon Brando's refusal of Academy Award

Segment Length

Not known


30 members of Movement for a New Society


John Adams, a crisis-intervention worker for the National Council of Churches

External allies

Not known

Involvement of social elites

Marlon Brando, an actor who won the 1973 academy award for his part in The Godfather


Federal Troops

Nonviolent responses of opponent

Not known

Campaigner violence

No campaigner violence

Repressive Violence

Not known


National-Ethnic Identity
Human Rights


Third-party nonviolent intervention

Group characterization

Movement for a New Society activists

Additional notes on joining/exiting order

Joining order not known

Segment Length

Not known

Success in achieving specific demands/goals

4 out of 6 points


1 out of 1 points


1 out of 3 points

Total points

6 out of 10 points

Notes on outcomes

Although MNS successfully stopped the violence between the groups during the time they were present, their numbers did not increase and they were eventually forced out of Wounded Knee. Afterwards, fighting recommenced.

Database Narrative

The history of Native American and government interactions in South Dakota is riddled with animosity.  In the mid-1900s the Native Americans were mortified by the atrocities committed against their people by the federal government and began to create a plan for protest.  In 1968, two hundred members of the American Indian community met to discuss issues of police brutality, high unemployment rates, unjust prosecutions, and other government policies regarding the Native American population.  At this meeting they launched the American Indian Movement (AIM).  

Two hundred AIM members decided to protest by occupying Wounded Knee, South Dakota in the Pine Ridge Reservation. Reclaiming this area had symbolic value; it was historically known for the Battle of Wounded Knee, a massacre of Native American women and children by the Cavalry.  They began their occupation on February 27, 1973.   The occupants did not take a nonviolent stance and were armed with rifles, pistols, knives, and clubs.  In fact, they even took the white inhabitants of Wounded Knee hostage.

Almost immediately, Federal troops surrounded the town.  According to Agents of Repression, the Pentagon invaded Wounded Knee with 17 armored personnel carriers, 130,000 rounds of M-16 ammunition, 41,000 rounds of M-1 ammunition, 24,000 flares, 12 M-79 grenade launchers, 600 cases of C-S gas, 100 rounds of M-40 explosives, helicopters, and phantom jets.  They established roadblocks around Wounded Knee approximately 15 miles in every direction.  Through most of the occupation firing between the groups was normal and proceeded to produce casualties.  

On March 13, members of Movement for a New Society (MNS), a network of U.S./Canadian groups dedicated to nonviolent revolution, flew into action. With both sides armed and poised for violence, the goal of MNS was to prevent the massive forces of the US Federal Government from firing upon the Native Americans.  MNS launched a phone tree that contacted all who were a part of their network. Collectives responded from many major cities including Madison, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Des Moines, Denver, Portland, and Philadelphia.  Within two days, these collectives sent carloads of activists to Wounded Knee. The activists utilized the method of physical intervention by acting as unarmed bodyguards.  This method is commonly acted out by individuals, however this time it was used as a mass action.  They placed themselves between the occupiers and the government forces.  

Throughout this time there were national demonstrations to show solidarity and concern.  One demonstration was in Denver at the location of the AIM headquarters.  This demonstration gathered 2,000 people to protest.  Los Angeles also had a demonstration, although smaller, consisting of only 400 people.  On March 21, activists demonstrated nationwide. In addition, celebrity Marlon Brando refused to accept his Academy Award for The Godfather (1) because he was making a statement to support AIM and (2) due to the poor treatment of Native Americans in the film industry.

Although MNS succeeded in stalling the violence for their first few days, the government eventually forced the MNS activists out. In the end, John Adams, a crisis-intervention worker for the National Council of Churches, stated that his position as a negotiator was validated and strengthened by the presence of MNS.

After 71 days of occupation, AIM and the government finally agreed on terms on 5 May 1973, which led to AIM completely disarming.  The official end came when the government asserted control on 8 May.


Cornell, Andrew. “Anarchism and the Movement for a New Society: Direct Action and Prefigurative Community in the 1970s and 80s”. Institute for Anarchist Studies. 2009. Web. 22 Oct, 2011.

Hope, Marjorie, and Young, James. The Struggle for Humanity: Agents of Nonviolent Change in a Violent World. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1977. Print.

Lyman, Steven David. Wounded Knee 1973: A Personal Account. University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Print.

Redhawk, William. “Siege at Wounded Knee.” Redhawk’s Lodge. 20 May 2004. Redhawk’s Lodge. Web. 22 Oct 2011.

Shipper, Martin. The Guide to the Microfilm Edition of The FBI Files on the American Indian Movement and Wounded Knee. Web. 23 Oct 2011.

Stevens, William K. “Militant at Wounded Knee is Shot as Fighting Erupts.” New York Times 18 April, 1973: pg. 97. Print.

Wounded Knee Incident. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia Foundation. Web. 22 Oct 2011.

Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy

Hannah Lehman, 23/10/2011