Turkmen senior citizens campaign against pension cuts, 2006


To undo the changes to Turkmenistan's pension system and raise pensions to their original higher level.

Time period notes

The actual end date is unknown, but I found no further protests or actions documented in this campaign. Specific dates for actions were difficult to come by.

Time period

February, 2006 to April, 2006



Location City/State/Province


Location Description

Cities throughout Turkmenistan, most notably in Turkmenbashi
Jump to case narrative

Methods in 1st segment

Segment Length

1 week

Notes on Methods

There was news of "protests" occurring throughout the country, but no specific details, especially after the initial excitement had quieted down.


Specific leaders not known


Not known

External allies

Not known

Involvement of social elites

Not known


Turkmenistan government under President Saparmurat Niyazov

Nonviolent responses of opponent

Not known

Campaigner violence

Not known

Repressive Violence

Not known


Economic Justice



Group characterization

Senior citizens

Groups in 1st Segment

Turkmen senior citizens

Segment Length

1 week

Success in achieving specific demands/goals

1 out of 6 points


0 out of 1 points


0 out of 3 points

Total points

1 out of 10 points

Notes on outcomes

Although the campaign did not effect immediate change, one year later, the new president, Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov, undid the changes to the pension system.

Database Narrative

Turkmenistan is a country in Asia, located north of Iran and Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 6 million.  President Saparmurat Niyazov came to power after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, and remained in power until late 2006.  Under Niyazov’s rule, Turkmenistan’s economy declined, with frequent food shortages and mass unemployment.  Because of the repressive nature of the regime, protests against the authoritarian government were few and far in between.

However, on January 25, 2006, President Niyazov introduced budgetary reforms that sparked small-scale protests throughout the entire country.  The bill cut pensions entirely for 100,000 of the 400,000 listed pensioners, while reducing the amount paid to the rest of the pensioners by about one-third.  This meant a loss to pensioners of, on average, $40 USD per month.   The reforms also reduced sick and maternity leave benefits by 20%.   These changes would affect entire families, as mass unemployment (unofficial figure of 80%) meant that the pensions from a family’s elders were often their main sources of income.   Niyazov claimed that the cuts resulted from errors in the national census concerning farm workers.

The pension cut announcement caused several elderly citizens, all in their 60’s, to collapse and require hospitalization.  However, the announcement also stirred others to action.  Pensioners met in private to consider their options, and over 300 people met in public to discuss the issue.  Women took to the streets to beg and sell what belongings they had.  Many prepared to protest the reform, as they no longer had anything to lose.  In early February, pensioners staged protests in the Ilyaly and Kunya-Urgench districts of northern Dashoguz province.  On February 6, in the town of Turkmenbashi, pensioners marched on the local administration, and some even committed suicide in protest.

In response to media reports about the demonstrations, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs released a statement that criticized the Russian media for distributing “deliberately perverted” information and “twisting facts.”  The Ministry claimed that Turkmen citizens were well taken care of with such benefits as free gas, electricity, drinking water, and salt.  However, the statement did not directly address the negative effects of the pension cuts.

Due to the authoritarian government’s tight control on media coverage, there was little further documentation on the actions of the campaigners.  However, one year later, in February 2007, Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov became president after the death of President Niyazov.  Berdymukhamedov restored the original pension levels and introduced new state benefits, such as one-time payments for each newborn baby and maternity benefits.  The minimum pension is now $12 USD each month.


German, Wade. "Turkmenistan: Senior Citizens Protest Pension Cuts - Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty © 2011." Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty - Free Media in Unfree Societies. 07 Feb. 2006. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1065527.html>.

"Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan Says Russian Media Outlets Disseminate "Deliberately Perverted" Information on Republic's Pension Maintenance." Turkmenistan.ru. 04 Feb. 2006. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://turkmenistan.ru/index.php?page_id=3&lang_id=en&elem_id=7704&type=event&sort=date_desc>.

"Pensions and Protests…." Neweurasia.net. 11 Feb. 2006. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.neweurasia.net/politics-and-society/pensions-and-protests/>.

"Tensions Rising as Turkmenistan Stops Pension Payments." Taipei Times. 05 Feb. 2006. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2006/02/05/2003291646/1>.

"Turkmen Leader Restores Pensions." BBC News. 19 Mar. 2007. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6466931.stm>.

"Turkmen Pension Shock." IWPR Institute for War & Peace Reporting. 19 July 2006. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://iwpr.net/report-news/turkmen-pension-shock>.

"TURKMENISTAN: Pension Cuts Begin to Bite | Turkmenistan | Other." IRIN • Humanitarian News and Analysis from Africa, Asia and the Middle East. 06 Feb. 2006. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportID=33708>.

Name of researcher, and date dd/mm/yyyy

Jennifer Trinh, 19/03/2011